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Thursday, 9 October 2014

Nobel Prize 2014 - Chemistry

Nobel Prize  2014 | Nobel Prize in Medicine 2014 | Nobel Prize in Physics 2014 | Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014 | Nobel Prize  in Literature 2014 | Nobel Prize in Physiology 2014 | Nobel Prize in Economics 2014 | Nobel Prize in Peace 2014
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The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014 for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy.
In what has become known as nanoscopy, scientists visualize the pathways of individual molecules inside living cells. They can see how molecules create synapses between nerve cells in the brain; they can track proteins involved in Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s diseases as they aggregate; they follow individual proteins in fertilized eggs as these divide into embryos.
It was all but obvious that scientists should ever be able to study living cells in the tiniest molecular detail. In 1873, the microscopist Ernst Abbe stipulated a physical limit for the maximum resolution of traditional optical microscopy: it could never become better than 0.2 micrometres. Eric Betzig , Stefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner are awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014 for having bypassed this limit. Due to their achievements the optical microscope can now peer into the nanoworld.
Two separate principles are rewarded. One enables the method stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, developed by Stefan Hell in 2000. Two laser beams are utilized; one stimulates fluorescent molecules to glow, another cancels out all fluorescence except for that in a nanometre-sized volume. Scanning over the sample, nanometre for nanometre, yields an image with a resolution better than Abbe’s stipulated limit.

Eric Betzig and William Moerner, working separately, laid the foundation for the second method , single-mole - cule microscopy . The method relies upon the possibility to turn the fluorescence of individual molecules on and off. Scientists image the same area multiple times, let - ting just a few interspersed molecules glow each time. Superimposing these images yields a dense super-image resolved at the nanolevel. In 2006 Eric Betzig utilized this method for the first time.
Today, nanoscopy is used world-wide and new knowledge of greatest benefit to mankind is produced on a daily basis.

Eric Betzig, U.S. citizen. Born 1960 in Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Ph.D. 1988 from Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. Group Leader at Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA, USA. 
For More Information :- http://janelia.org/lab/betzig-lab
Stefan W. Hell, German citizen. Born 1962 in Arad, Romania. Ph.D. 1990 from the University of Heidelberg, Germany. Director at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göt - tingen, and Division head at the German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany. 

For More Information :- www3.mpibpc.mpg.de/groups/hell
William E. Moerner, U.S. citizen. Born 1953 in Pleasanton, CA, USA. Ph.D. 1982 from Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. Harr y S. Mosher Professor in Chemistry and Professor, by cour - tesy, of Applied Physics at Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. 
For More Information :- http://web.stanford.edu/group/moerner
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