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Monday, 27 January 2014

GK YEAR BOOK - 001

Kerala PSC Helper proudly introduced a GK YEAR BOOK series for our valuable readers. 
India and Children 
India is the largest country of the children in the world. As per the provisional figures of the 2011 Census number of children below 6 years is 15,87,89,287 includes 8,29,52,135 boys and 7,58,37,152 girls. Even though sex ratio of total population is increasing, sex ratio of children below 6 years is decreasing. In 1961 there were 976 girls in between 0-6 years per thousand boys but it was reduced to 914 in the 2011.
Number of girls per thousand boys in India
Census YearBoysGirls (0-6)
1961941976
1971930964
1981934962
1991937945
2001933927
2011940914

Poverty on children
Poverty affects on the health and nutrition status of children. Inadequate and irregular earnings affects the quantity and quality of food that a family can consume throughout the year, its standard of living, and access and use of healthcare. The extent of proverty varies considerably between States. Data from the Planning Commission with regard to the number and percentage of population below poverty line in States shows that in 1999-2000, among the bigger States, Odisha had the largest percentage of population below the poverty line (47015), followed by Bihar (42.60) National data establishes that nearly 10 crores out of 15.87 crores children are in the poorest sections of the community and one half of the total poor belongs to the schedule castes and schedule tribes.
Infant Mortality
Infant mortality (the probability of a child dying before the first birthday) expressed as a rate per thousand live births in a specified year. Infant mortality rate has been decreasing over the years. It was 192 in the year of 1971, 68 in the year of 2000 and 44 in the year of 2012. The decline in IMR is prevalent both in boys and in girls. But rate decline is more in boys than the girls. 37 percent of all infant death in India are concentrated in two states, ie in Uttar Pradesh and in Bihar. 70 percent of all infants deaths are concentrated in eight states (Bihar, UP, MP, Odisha, Rajasthan, Andra Pradesh, Mahrastra and Gujarath). IMR is high in rural area (61) than urban areas (37).
Infant Mortality Rates
YearTotal
1980114
198597
199080
199374
199672
200068
200360
200558
200949
201144
Child Mortality
More than one fifths of the total World child deaths are happening in India. About 21lakhs children die annually in India before completing their fifth birthday- most of them due to preventable causes. According to UNICIF report about one third of the currently married women in the age-group 15-49 years have Body Mass Index (BMI) less than 18.5 kg/m2 and about 47 percent girls in the age-group 15-19, have BMI less than 18.5 kg/m2. Both factors are strongly correlated with low birth weigh and thus with unfavorable outcomes for the mother (increase in risk of maternal deaths) and the neonate. Only four diseases -respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, other infectious and parasitic diseases and malaria - account for about half of under-five deaths in India. Resporatory infections and diarrhoel diseases together contribute to 36 percent of all deaths in children under five year of age.

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